Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)


  • Excess spinal fluid collects in the chambers of the brain (ventricles).
  • The ventricles increase in size and press on nearby brain tissue, causing symptoms.


  • Difficulty walking (feet appear to be “glued” to the floor)
  • Falls, usually backwards
  • Loss of bladder control, which usually follows cognitive and walking difficulties


  • Typically diagnosed in people in their 60s and 70s
  • Unknown cause but can be seen with history of brain bleed, infection, inflammation, or injury


  • Brain scans and imaging can help see whether there is too much fluid building up in the ventricles.
  • A lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, is sometimes recommended for diagnosis and treatment.


  • Insertion of a brain shunt by a neurosurgeon to remove extra fluid and improve symptoms.